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About Mercury Planet | Solar System

Planet Mercury

Named for the fleet-footed Roman messenger god, Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. As such, it circles. The sun faster than all the other planets Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun within Earth's orbit as an inferior planet, and its apparent distance from the Sun as viewed from Earth never exceeds 28°.
Because Mercury is so small and so close to the sun, it is the most elusive of the five planets that are visible to the naked eye. You can only catch Mercury at dawn and dusk, and it usually does not rise far above the horizon. But that’s not the only time the tiny planet makes an appearance.
Mercury Planet
Mercury Planet

Mercury's physical characteristics

Mercury appears to have a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid, iron sulfide outer core layer,  a deeper liquid core layer, and a solid inner core. Mercury is the smallest planet — it is only slightly larger than Earth's moon. Since it has no significant atmosphere to stop impacts, The planet is pockmarked with craters. About 4 billion years ago, an asteroid roughly 60 miles (100 kilometers) wide struck Mercury with an impact equal to 1 trillion 1-megaton bombs,

Mercury
Mercury

Creating a vast impact crater roughly 960 miles (1,550 km) wide. Known as the Caloris Basin, this crater could hold the entire state of Texas. Another large impact may have helped create the planet's odd spin. Alternatively, Mercury may have formed from the solar nebula before the Sun's energy output had stabilized. It would initially have had twice its present mass, but as the protosun contracted, temperatures near Mercury could have been between 2,500 and 3,500 K and possibly even as high as 10,000 K. Much of Mercury's surface rock could have been vaporized at such temperatures, forming an atmosphere of "rock vapor" that could have been carried away by the solar wind.

Video Source : NetGeo


Mercurial origins

Like the other planets in the solar system, Mercury was born about 4.5 billion years ago, condensing from the swirling ring of dust and gas left over from the sun’s formation. Mercury became what’s known as a terrestrial planet, with a dense metallic core, a rocky mantle, and a solid crust. However, the small planet cooled very quickly, contracting enough within the first billion or so years to prevent magma from escaping. Through the outer crust and ending geologic activity such as volcanism on the surface.

Mercurial origins

Mercurial origins





Mercury Statistics
Mass (kg)3.303e+23
Mass (Earth = 1)5.5271e-02
Equatorial radius (km)2,439.7
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1)3.8252e-01
Mean density (gm/cm^3)5.42
Mean distance from the Sun (km)57,910,000
Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1)0.3871
Rotational period (days)58.6462
Orbital period (days)87.969
Mean orbital velocity (km/sec)47.88
Orbital eccentricity0.2056
Tilt of axis (degrees)0.00
Orbital inclination (degrees)7.004
Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2)2.78
Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec)4.25
Visual geometric albedo0.10
Magnitude (Vo)-1.9
Mean surface temperature179°C
Maximum surface temperature427°C
Minimum surface temperature-173°C
Atmospheric composition
Helium
Sodium
Oxygen
Other

42%
42%
15%
1%

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