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Structure of the Earth - Inside The Earth

Inside The Earth

Earth's inner core is the innermost geologic structure of the earth. It is a primarily a solid ball with the radius of about 1,220 kilometers which is about 20% of Earth's radius or 70% of the Moon's radius.

Structure of the Earth

The Inner Core

It is composed of an iron-nickle alloy with some other elements.
The temperature at the inner core's is estimated to be approximately 5700 k which is about the temperature at the surface of the sun.

The Outer Core

Earth's outer core is a fluid layer about 2,400 km thick and composed of mostly iron and nickle that lies above solid inner core and below it's mantle.

It's outer boundary lies 2,890 km beneath Earth's surface. The transition between inner core and outer core is located approximately 5,150 km beneath the Earth's surface. 

Stiffer Mantle And Rigid Mantle

The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between crust and the outer core. Its mass of 4.01 x 10^24 kg is 67% masses of the Earth. It has a thickness of 2,900 km making up about 84% of Earth's Volume.

Structure of the Earth

It is predominantly solid  but in geological time. It behave as a viscous fluid. Partial melting of the mantle at mid ocean ridges produces oceanic crust and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.


 The Earth's crust is the Earth's  hard outer layer. It is less than 1% of Earth's volume. The crust is made up of different type of rocks- 
Igneous metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks.

Structure of the Earth

Below the crust is the mantle. The crust and the upper Mantle make up the lithosphere. The lithosphere is broken up into tectonic plates that can move.
The crust is of two type. One is the continental crust and the other is the oceanic crust.

The Continental crust is thicker, 30 kilometer to 50 kilometer thick. It is mostly made of less dense, more felsic rocks, such as  granite.
The oceanic crust is thinner, 5 kilometer to 10 kilometer thick. It is made of denser, more mafic rocks, such as basalt.
The crust is the coldest layer because it is exposed to the atmosphere. The temperature of The crust increases with depth because of geothermal energy. Where the crust meets the mental the temperatures can be between 200°C to 400°C.


The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by earth's gravity.
The atmosphere of Earth protects life on earth by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention and reducing temperature extremes between day and night.

By volume, dry air contains-
  • 78.09% Nitrogen
  • 20.95% Oxygen
  • 0.93% Argon
  • 0.04% Carbon dioxide
And small amount of other gases.
Airport also contains a variable amount of water vapour, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere.

There are five main layer of atmosphere-

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