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About Jupiter Planet | Solar System

Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet after Mars and the largest in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter is one of the brightest objects visible to the naked eye in the night sky, and has been known to all ancient civilizations since before recorded history. It is named after the Roman god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can be bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows,and is on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.
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Jupiter (Source : NASA)


Jupiter helped revolutionize the way we saw the universe and ourselves in 1610, when Galileo discovered Jupiter's four large moons — Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, now known as the Galilean moons. This was the first time that celestial bodies were seen circling an object other than Earth, and gave major support to the Copernican view that Earth was not the center of the universe.


Physical characteristics

Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter. It is the largest planet in the Solar System. It has a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator. The average density of Jupiter, 1.326 g/cm3, is the second highest of the giant planets, but lower than those of the four terrestrial planets.

Video Source : National Geographic

Jupiter broadcasts radio waves strong enough to detect on Earth. These come in two forms — strong bursts that occur when Io, the closest of Jupiter's large moons, passes through certain regions of Jupiter's magnetic field, and continuous radiation from Jupiter's surface and high-energy particles in its radiation belts.


Composition

Jupiter's upper atmosphere is about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume of gas molecules. A helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms.The most extraordinary feature on Jupiter is the Great Red Spot, a giant hurricane-like storm that's lasted more than 300 years. 


Internal structure

Jupiter is thought to consist of a dense core with a mixture of elements, a surrounding layer of liquid metallic hydrogen with some helium, and an outer layer predominantly of molecular hydrogen.Beyond this basic outline, there is still considerable uncertainty. The core is often described as rocky, but its detailed composition is unknown, as are the properties of materials at the temperatures and pressures of those depths. In 1997, the existence of the core was suggested by gravitational measurements,[44] indicating a mass of from 12 to 45 times that of Earth, or roughly 4%–14% of the total mass of Jupiter.


Jupiter Moons

There are 79 known moons of Jupiter.The most massive of the moons are the four Galilean moons, which were independently discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius and were the first objects found to orbit a body that was neither Earth nor the Sun. From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter or his Greek equivalent Zeus. The Galilean moons are by far the largest and most massive objects to orbit Jupiter, with the remaining 75 known moons and the rings together comprising just 0.003% of the total orbiting mass.

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Jupiter Moons (Image Source: Wikipedia)

Jupiter Details


Jupiter Statistics
Mass (kg)1.900e+27
Mass (Earth = 1)3.1794e+02
Equatorial radius (km)71,492
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1)1.1209e+01
Mean density (gm/cm^3)1.33
Mean distance from the Sun (km)778,330,000
Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1)5.2028
Rotational period (days)0.41354
Orbital period (days)4332.71
Mean orbital velocity (km/sec)13.07
Orbital eccentricity0.0483
Tilt of axis (degrees)3.13
Orbital inclination (degrees)1.308
Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2)22.88
Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec)59.56
Visual geometric albedo0.52
Magnitude (Vo)-2.70
Mean cloud temperature-121°C
Atmospheric pressure (bars)0.7
Atmospheric composition
Hydrogen
Helium

90%
10%

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