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About Mars Planet | Solar System

Mars

Mars is the fourth planet after Earth and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury. In English, Mars carries a name of the Roman god of war and is often referred to as the 'Red Planet'. The latter refers to the effect of the iron oxide prevalent on Mars' surface, which gives it a reddish appearance distinctive among the astronomical bodies visible to the naked eye.
Mars Image Jpg
Mars Image (Source:Google Image) 

Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. Other civilizations also typically gave the planet names based on its color — for example, the Egyptians named it "Her Desher ," meaning "the red one," while ancient Chinese astronomers dubbed it "the fire star."


Physical characteristics

Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth, with a surface area only slightly less than the total area of Earth's dry land. Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earth's volume and 11% of Earth's mass, resulting in about 38% of Earth's surface gravity.

Mars Amosphere gif image
Mars (before/after) global dust storm (July 2018) (Image Source : wiki)

Mars also has the largest volcanoes in the solar system, Olympus Mons being one of them. The massive volcano, which is about 600 km in diameter, is wide enough to cover the state of New Mexico. Olympus Mons is a shield volcano, with slopes that rise gradually like those of Hawaiian volcanoes, and was created by eruptions of lavas that flowed for long distances before solidifying.


Internal structure

Like a Earth, Mars has differentiated into a dense metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ± 65 kilometers, consisting primarily of iron and nickel with about 16–17% sulfur.This iron(II) sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements as Earth's
Internal structure of Mars jpeg
Internal structure of Mars


Atmosphere

Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago, possibly because of numerous asteroid strikes,so the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere, lowering the atmospheric density by stripping away atoms from the outer layer. Both Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Express have detected ionised atmospheric particles trailing off into space behind Mars,and this atmospheric loss is being studied by the MAVEN orbiter.


Mars Atmosphere
Mars Atmosphere

Mars Statistics


Mars Statistics
Mass (kg)6.421e+23
Mass (Earth = 1)1.0745e-01
Equatorial radius (km)3,397.2
Equatorial radius (Earth = 1)5.3264e-01
Mean density (gm/cm^3)3.94
Mean distance from the Sun (km)227,940,000
Mean distance from the Sun (Earth = 1)1.5237
Rotational period (hours)24.6229
Rotational period (days)1.025957
Orbital period (days)686.98
Mean orbital velocity (km/sec)24.13
Orbital eccentricity0.0934
Tilt of axis (degrees)25.19
Orbital inclination (degrees)1.850
Equatorial surface gravity (m/sec^2)3.72
Equatorial escape velocity (km/sec)5.02
Visual geometric albedo0.15
Magnitude (Vo)-2.01
Minimum surface temperature-140°C
Mean surface temperature-63°C
Maximum surface temperature20°C
Atmospheric pressure (bars)0.007
Atmospheric composition
Carbon Dioxide (C02)
Nitrogen (N2)
Argon (Ar)
Oxygen (O2)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Water (H2O)
Neon (Ne)
Krypton (Kr)
Xenon (Xe)
Ozone (O3)

95.32%
2.7%
1.6%
0.13%
0.07%
0.03%
0.00025%
0.00003%
0.000008%
0.000003%

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