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CHANDRAYAAN 3: India Could Land on the Moon in November 2020

India Could Land on the Moon in November 2020

BENGALURU:
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

The Indian Space Research Organisation is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bengaluru. Its vision is to "harness space technology for national development while pursuing space science research & planetary exploration".

is working on Chandrayaan 3, which would only include a lander and a rover because India already has a working orbiter at the moon — Chandrayaan 2.

Mission repeat: Chandrayaan-3


In November 2019, ISRO officials stated that a new lunar lander mission is being studied for launch in November 2020; this new proposal is called Chandrayaan-3 and it would be a re-attempt to demonstrate the landing capabilities needed for the Lunar Polar Exploration Mission proposed in partnership with Japan for 2024. If funded, this re-attempt would not include launching an orbiter. The proposed configuration would have a detachable propulsion module, a lander and a rover. According to VSSC director, S. Somanath, there will be more follow up missions in the Chandrayaan programme.
Chandrayaan 3
Chandrayaan 3

In December 2019 it was reported that ISRO requested the initial funding of the project, amounting to ₹75 crore (US$11 million), out of which ₹60 crore (US$8.7 million) will be for meeting expenditure towards machinery, equipment and other capital expenditure, while the remaining ₹15 crore (US$2.2 million) is sought under revenue expenditure head.
The spacecraft was launched on its mission to the Moon from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM  by a GSLV Mark III. The craft reached the Moon's orbit on 20 August 2019 and began orbital positioning manoeuvres for the landing of the Vikram lander. Vikram and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region at a latitude of about 70° south on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates two Earth weeks.
Chandrayaan-3

However, the lander deviated from its intended trajectory starting at 2.1 kilometres altitude,and had lost communication when touchdown confirmation was expected. Initial reports suggesting a crash were confirmed by ISRO chairman K. Sivan, stating that "it must have been a hard landing". The Failure Analysis Committee concluded that the crash was caused by a software glitch.


Chandrayaan-3
Image Source : (ISRO)
ISRO may re-attempt a soft landing by November 2020 with Chandrayaan-3. The proposed configuration would include a detachable propulsion module, a lander and a rover.

ISRO has three subcommittees and an overall panel examining the new mission, and has already held at least four high-level meetings since October, the newspaper added. "On Tuesday [Nov. 12], the overview committee met with the agenda of reviewing the configuration of Chandrayaan 3," the Times of India said, examining aspects such as the landing site, navigation techniques and spacecraft components.

Another scientist said among the  top priority for the new mission is “strengthening the legs of the lander”, so that it allows landing even with a high velocity. Sources said that ISRO will be building a new lander and a rover. No final decision has been taken on the number of payloads on the lander. 

Chandrayaan-2 composite
Mission typeLunar orbiter, lander, rover
OperatorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
COSPAR ID2019-042A
SATCAT no.44441
Websitewww.isro.gov.in/chandrayaan2-home-0
Mission durationOrbiter: ~ 7 years
Elapsed: 3 months, 21 days
Vikram lander: ≤ 14 days (planned)
Achieved: 0 days (landing failure)
Pragyan rover: ≤ 14 days (planned)
Achieved: 0 days (landing failure)
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Launch massCombined (wet): 3,850 kg (8,490 lb)
Combined (dry): 1,308 kg (2,884 lb)
Orbiter (wet): 2,379 kg (5,245 lb)
Orbiter (dry): 682 kg (1,504 lb)
Vikram lander (wet): 1,471 kg (3,243 lb)
Vikram lander (dry): 626 kg (1,380 lb)
Pragyan rover: 27 kg (60 lb)
PowerOrbiter: 1 kW (1.3 hp)
Vikram lander: 650 W
Pragyan rover: 50 W
Start of mission
Launch date22 July 2019, 14:43:12 IST (09:13:12 UTC)
RocketGSLV Mark III
Launch siteSatish Dhawan Space Centre Second Launch Pad
ContractorIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
Moon orbiter
Orbital insertion20 August 2019, 09:02 IST (03:32 UTC) 
Orbital parameters
Pericynthion altitude100 km (62 mi)
Apocynthion altitude100 km (62 mi)
Inclination90° (polar orbit)
Moon lander
Spacecraft componentRover
Landing date7 September 2019, 01:53 IST (failure)
(6 September 2019, 20:23 UTC) 

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