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First Meeting of Gaganyaan Indian Space Research Organization


Gaganyaan: Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has been selected 12 potential crew members for India's first manned mission to space 'Gaganyaan'. Air Chief Marshal RKS Bhadoria said on November 14 that astronauts have been selected professionally for the first manned mission Gaganyaan. Prime Minister Narendra Modi has described Gaganyaan as his dream project.

Actual crew module used during the Pad Abort Test (PAT) of Crew Escape System (CES).jpg
CARE test vehicle used for suborbital re-entry test.
Gaganyaan (Sanskrit: गगनयान, "Sky Vehicle") is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft intended to be the basis of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. The spacecraft is being designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capability. In its maiden crewed mission, Indian Space Research Organisation's largely autonomous 3.7-tonne (8,200 lb) capsule will orbit the Earth at 400 km (250 mi) altitude for up to seven days with a two or three-person crew on board. The crewed vehicle is planned to be launched on ISRO's GSLV Mk III in December 2021.This HAL-manufactured crew module had its first un-crewed experimental flight on 18 December 2014. As of May 2019, design of the crew module has been completed.

Whats is Gaganyaan?

  • Gaganyaan is an Indian manned space mission. ISRO will send three Indians for a seven-day journey into space for the first time in this mission.
  • The first phase of astronaut selection for India's space mission Gaganyaan has been completed.
  • This process is being done by the Indian Air Force at the Institute of Airspace Medicine.
  • ISRO will launch Gaganyaan by 2022 and bring them back to India. About 10 thousand crore rupees will be spent on this mission.
  • Rakesh Sharma was the first astronaut of India. He travelled into space through Soyuz T-11 (Russia) On April 2, 1984. Rakesh Sharma was also a pilot of the Indian Air Force.

Gaganyaan Detalis

Gaganyaan is a fully autonomous 3.7-tonne (8,200 lb) spacecraft designed to carry a 3-member crew to orbit and safely return to the Earth after a mission duration of up to seven days. Its service module is powered by two liquid propellant engines. The crew module is mated to the service module, and together they are called the orbital module. Based on the payload capability of the GSLV-III booster, the service module would have a mass of about 3 tonnes (6,600 lb).
Flight typeDateRegimeCrew
Re-entry Test10 January 2007OrbitalNone
Re-entry Test18 December 2014Sub-orbitalNone
Pad Abort Test5 July 2018AtmosphericNone
Test Flight 1
December 2020
Test Flight 2
July 2021
Crewed Flight 1
December 2021
The space capsule will have life support and environmental control systems. It will be equipped with emergency mission abort and emergency escape that can be done at the first stage or second stage of the rocket burn. The nose of the original version of the orbital vehicle was free for a docking mechanism, but primary entry was evidently through a side hatch secured by explosive bolts.

Following two non-crewed orbital flight demonstrations of the spacecraft, a crewed Gaganyaan is slated to be launched on the GSLV Mk III launcher in late 2021.

Testing Of Gaganyaan

On 13 February 2014, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited handed over the first Crew Module structural assembly to ISRO. ISRO's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre would equip the Crew Module with systems necessary for life support, navigation, guidance and control systems. ISRO undertook an uncrewed test launch of the vehicle aboard the GSLV Mk3 X1, for an experimental sub-orbital flight on 18 December 2014. 
The GSLV Mk3 launcher with a dummy upper cryogenic stage (filled with liquid nitrogen to simulate weight of fuel) was launched at 9:30 am from the second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota. The crew module separated from the rocket at an altitude of 126 km. On board motors controlled and reduced the speed of the module until an altitude of 80 km (50 mi). Thrusters were shutoff at that altitude and atmospheric drag further reduced speed of the capsule. The module heat shield was expected to experience temperature in excess of 1,600 °C (2,910 °F). Parachutes were deployed at an altitude of 15 km (9.3 mi) to slow down the module which performed a splashdown in the Bay of Bengal near Andaman and Nicobar islands.


ManufacturerHAL and ISRO
Country of originIndia
ApplicationsCrewed orbital vehicle
Spacecraft typeCrewed
Design life7 days
Launch mass7,800 kg (17,200 lb) (includes service module)
Dry mass3,735 kg (8,234 lb)
Crew capacity
DimensionsDiameter: 3.5 m (11 ft)
Height: 3.58 m (11.7 ft) 
Volume8 m3 (280 cu ft)
PowerPhotovoltaic array
RegimeLow Earth orbit
StatusIn development
Maiden launchDecember 2020 (uncrewed)
December 2021 (crewed)

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