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About (GSLV) Geosynchronous Satellite | Launch Vehicle

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV)of ISRO, is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). GSLV was used in 13 launches from 2001 to 2018, with more launches planned. Even though GSLV Mk III shares the name, it is an entirely different launcher.


GSLV
GSLV
FunctionMedium Lift Launch System
ManufacturerISRO
Country of originIndia
Cost per launchUS$47 million
Size
Height49.13 m (161.2 ft)
Diameter2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)
Mass414,750 kg (914,370 lb)
Stages3
Capacity
Payload to LEO5,000 kg (11,000 lb)
Payload to GTO2,700 kg (6,000 lb)
Launch history
Status
  • Mk.I: Retired
  • Mk.II: Active
Launch sitesSatish Dhawan
Total launches13 (6 Mk.I, 7 Mk.II)
Successes8 (2 Mk.I, 6 Mk.II)
Failures3 (2 Mk.I, 1 Mk.II)
Partial failures2 (Mk.I)
First flight
  • Mk.I: 18 April 2001
  • Mk.II: 15 April 2010
Last flight
  • Mk.I: 25 December 2010
  • Mk.II: 19 December 2018
Notable payloadsSouth Asia Satellite
Boosters
No. boosters4 L40 Hs
Length19.7 m (65 ft)
Diameter2.1 m (6.9 ft)
Propellant mass42,700 kg (94,100 lb) each 
Engines1 L40H Vikas 2
Thrust760 kN (170,000 lbf)
Total thrust3,040 kN (680,000 lbf)
Specific impulse262 s (2.57 km/s)
Burn time154 seconds
FuelN2O4/UDMH
First stage
Length20.2 m (66 ft)
Diameter2.8 m (9.2 ft)
Propellant mass138,200 kg (304,700 lb)
Engines1 S139
Thrust4,846.9 kN (1,089,600 lbf)
Specific impulse237 s (2.32 km/s)
Burn time100 seconds
FuelHTPB (solid)
Second stage
Length11.6 m (38 ft)
Diameter2.8 m (9.2 ft)
Propellant mass39,500 kg (87,100 lb)
Engines1 GS2 Vikas 4
Thrust846.8 kN (190,400 lbf)
Specific impulse295 s (2.89 km/s)
Burn time139 seconds
FuelN2O4/UDMH
Second GS2 (GL40) stage
Length11.9 m (39 ft)
Diameter2.8 m (9.2 ft)
Propellant mass42,500 kg (93,700 lb)
Engines1 GS2 Vikas 4
Thrust846.8 kN (190,400 lbf)
Specific impulse295 s (2.89 km/s)
Burn time149 seconds
FuelN2O4/UDMH
Third stage (GSLV Mk.II) – CUS12
Length8.7 m (29 ft)
Diameter2.8 m (9.2 ft)
Propellant mass12,800 kg (28,200 lb)
Engines1 CE-7.5
Thrust75 kN (17,000 lbf)
Specific impulse454 s (4.45 km/s)
Burn time718 seconds[4]
FuelLOX/LH2
Third stage (GSLV Mk.II) – CUS15
Length9.9 m (32 ft)
Diameter2.8 m (9.2 ft)
Propellant mass15,000 kg (33,000 lb)
Engines1 CE-7.5
Thrust75 kN (17,000 lbf)
Specific impulse454 s (4.45 km/s)
Burn time846 seconds
FuelLOX/LH2

History

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) project was initiated in 1990s with the objective of acquiring an Indian launch capability for geosynchronous satellites.

GSLV uses major components that are already proven in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launchers in the form of the S125/S139 solid rocket boosters and the liquid-fueled Vikas engine. Due to the thrust is required for injecting the satellite in a GTO orbit the third stage was to be powered by a LOX/LH2 Cryogenic engine which at the time India did not the possess or had the technology know-how to build one.

The first development flight of the GSLV (Mk.I configuration) was launched on 19/04/2001 was a failure as the payload failed to reach the intended orbit parameters. The launcher was declared operational after the second development flight successfully launched the GSAT-two satellite. During the initial years from the initial launch to 2014 the launcher had a checkered history with only two successful launches out of  Seven

Launch statistics


Mission outcome

1
2
3
4
5
2001
2005
2010
2015
2020
'22
  •   Success
  •   Partial failure
  •   Failure
  •   Planned

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