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The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) | Space agency

Indian Space Research Organisation

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India and has its headquarters in the city of Bengaluru India. Its vision is to harness space technology for the national development while pursuing the space science research & the planetary exploration. The Indian National Committee for the Space Research (INCOSPAR) was established in the tenure of Jawaharlal Nehru under the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) in 1962, with the urging of a scientist Vikram Sarabhai recognizing the need in space research. INCOSPAR grew and became the ISRO in 1969, also under the DAE. In 1972, Government of India had setup a Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS), bringing the ISRO under the DOS. The establishment of ISRO thus the institutionalized space research activities in India. It is the managed by the DOS, which reports to the prime minister of India.

Indian Space Research Organisation
ISRO logo (adopted in 2002)
Formation15 August 1969; 50 years ago
HeadquartersBengaluru, Karnataka, India
12°57′56″N 77°41′53″E
K. Sivan (Chairman)
Primary spaceport
Parent organisation
Department of Space
₹10,252 crore (US$1.4 billion)
(FY 2019–20)
16,815 as of 2019
ISRO The Indian Space Research Organisation built India's first satellite, Aryabhata, which was launched by the Soviet Union on 19 April 1975. It was named after the mathematician Aryabhata. In 1980, the Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3. ISRO subsequently developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for placing satellites into geostationary orbits. These rockets have the launched numerous communications satellites and Earth observation satellites. Satellite navigation the systems like GAGAN and IRNSS have been deployed. In January 2014, ISRO used an indigenous cryogenic engine in the GSLV-D5 launch of the GSAT-14.

ISRO sent a lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-one, on 22 October 2008, which discovered lunar water in the form of ice, and the Mars Orbiter Mission, on 5 November 2013, which entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making the India the first nation to succeed on its maiden attempt to Mars, as well as the first space agency in Asia to reach Mars orbit. On 18 June 2016, ISRO launched 20 satellites in a single vehicle, and on 15 February 2017, ISRO launched one hundred and four satellites in a single rocket (PSLV-C37), a world record. ISRO launched its heaviest rocket, the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III), on 5 June 2017 and placed a communications satellite GSAT-19 in orbit. With this launch, ISRO became capable to launching 4-ton heavy satellites into GTO. On 22 July 2019, ISRO launched its second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 to study the lunar geology and the distribution of lunar water.

Future plans include development of the Unified Launch Vehicle, The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, development of a reusable launch vehicle, human spaceflight, a space station, interplanetary probes, and a solar spacecraft mission.

Research facilities

Vikram Sarabhai Space CentreThiruvananthapuramThe largest ISRO base is also the main technical centre and the venue of development of the SLV-3, ASLV, and PSLV series. The base supports India's Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the Rohini Sounding Rocket programme. This facility is also developing the GSLV series.
Liquid Propulsion Systems CentreThiruvananthapuram and BengaluruThe LPSC handles design, development, testing and implementation of liquid propulsion control packages, liquid stages and liquid engines for launch vehicles and satellites.The testing of these systems is largely conducted at IPRC at Mahendragiri. The LPSC, Bangalore also produces precision transducers.
Physical Research LaboratoryAhmedabadSolar planetary physics, infrared astronomy, geo-cosmo physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, archaeology, and hydrology are some of the branches of study at this institute. An observatory at Udaipur also falls under the control of this institution.
Semi-Conductor LaboratoryChandigarhResearch & Development in the field of semiconductor technology, micro-electro mechanical systems and process technologies relating to semiconductor processing.
National Atmospheric Research LaboratoryTirupatiThe NARL carries out fundamental and applied research in atmospheric and space sciences.
Space Applications CentreAhmedabadThe SAC deals with the various aspects of the practical use of space technology. Among the fields of research at the SAC are geodesy, satellite based telecommunications, surveying, remote sensing, meteorology, environment monitoring etc. The SAC also operates the Delhi Earth Station, which is located in Delhi and is used for demonstration of various SATCOM experiments in addition to normal SATCOM operations.
North-Eastern Space Applications CentreShillongProviding developmental support to North East by undertaking specific application projects using remote sensing, GIS, satellite communication and conducting space science research.

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